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www.changpuak.ch\ bijoux\ thai_etiquette.php - September 05 2016 13:27:58


Thai Etiquette : มารยาท ไทย



Usually travel-guides only scratch the surface and in-depth information is available only
in thai language. As engineers are always curious and we wanted to know the 'full' story,
we researched to have a compilation of reliable information.

Feel free to contact the author in case you may discover optimisation potential.


Feel free to send an email to :


This compilation is divided into five parts, depending on the situation.

❶ When and how you are expected to standing
❷ When and how you are expected to sitting
❸ When and how you are expected to walking
❹ When and how you are expected to salutate
❺ When and how you may present or receive things






When to stand up and how to do it

☆ ☆ ☆ การ ยืน ☆ ☆ ☆



Well, this custom is not new to you, as you may stand up when your boss
is entering your office.

Thai people stand up for the following reasons :

• Pay Respect to to the National Flag
• Pay Respect to to the National Anthem

Thai Flag nüt Royal Thai Army Flag nüt King's Standard nüt Queen's Flag

In saluting the national flag, one must look in the direction of the flag and bow one's head when the national anthem ends. For the Armies' Flag of Victory shown during ceremonial military parades, one should salute when moving past the Flags or when they are being carried past.




• Saluting towards Royalty

When standing in line to greet the King, the Queen or high-ranking Royalty, on should observe the rule of order or follow the supervisor's commands. Men and women wearing uniforms and hats salute with their right hands. If they are hatless, they lower their heads and shoulders slowly to a suitable extent. Having done this once, they may stand up straight again, not looking up too quickly.

For those not wearing a uniform, men should bow and women curtsey.

Those wearing hats which are not part of the uniform must remove them and express their respect in the same way as others not wearing uniform.

Upon the arrival of the King, the Queen, the Crown Prince or their representatives, all present must stand up and show respect as described above, and remain standing until the royal personage is seated or has gone out of sight. Before sitting down or moving around, they must make the same gesture of respect once again. When the royal personage rises to perform a function, such as lighting candles and incense-sticks to worship the Three Gems (the Lord Buddha, His Teachings and the Buddhist clergy) or delivering a speech, those present must stand up and remain standing until that personage has finished and returned to his or her seat. After repeating the salutation once more, all may sit down again.

Any person wishing to leave in the presence of royalty must show respect once before leaving and again after returning.

• Saluting the Supreme Patriarch

If the Supreme Patriarch arrives at the venue of the ceremony before the King or the high personage, all present should show respect by standing and raising their joined palms to their foreheads, the thumbs touching between the eyebrows. This gesture should be accompanied by a slight bow of the head. All may sit down after the Supreme Patriarch has passed.

If the Supreme Patriarch should arrive later than the King or a high personage (which rarely happens), those present may remain seated while showing him respect with joined palms raised to their foreheads.

• Standing at Ceremonies

At ceremonies during which Maharoek (เพลงมหาฤกษ์) and Mahachai (เพลงมหาชัย) are played, all those present stand erect until the music ends. If the ceremonies are official ones, military officials and civil servants in uniform behave according to their codes of conduct. (The Maharoek is played to mark the beginning of an important ceremony or a propitious event, such as sthe inauguration of a government office or a major communication route, etc. The Mahachai is played to greet high-rankign royalty or a high-level personage at a ceremony. It is also played at the end of the person's speech and during other important official functions.)

Standing in honour of the deceased. One should stand upon hearing the sound of a bugle as a signal of eternal rest and when the person presiding over the funeral rite places the offerings of apology or lights the cremation fire, with or without funeral music. One should also stand up when a deceased person is being carried past.

• Formal Standing

When the person presiding over an official ceremony is walking past, all those present should stand up, with their hands at their sides, and look towards that person. When listening to a ceremonial speech, one should stand erect with the legs close together and look towards the speaker. If one is reiceiving a certificate or a decoration, it should be held either with the right hand against one's chest or at a 90-degree angle to one's body, according to the instructions for that particular occasion. If it is held with both hands, it should be held at a 90-degree angle to the body.

In the taking of an oath before the King and the Armies' Flags of Victory, teachers, students and other groups, such as national defence volunteers, judges, boy scouts and girl guides, are to behave in accordance with the prescribed programme.

• Informal Standing

When taking orders in general, one should stand with the legs close together and hands at one's sides, and look towards the person giving the orders. When an older or more senior person joins a groups of younger people in conversation, the younger people should stand up, hands clasped together at waist level, and bend forward slightly. They may sit down when the older person has taken a seat. During a conversation with an older person, one should stand at a suitable distance from that person with the legs close together. One should bend forward slightly, and clasp the hands together at waist level. During a conversation with friends, during a rest or while watching an entertainment, one should stand in a polite way so as not to disturb others. Behaviour such as talking over someone's head or blocking someone's view when it can be avoided is considered impolite and irritating. Standing in a queue should also be done in a polite way. The line should be orderly and precedence strictly observed. people should stand in a queue when boarding a bus, ascending a crematorium, pouring lustral water on a bridal couple or awaiting their turn at a buffet. While performing a function such as reading an announcement or giving a lecture or speech, one should stand in a polite manner.

nüt



oben

When to sit and how to do it

☆ ☆ ☆ การ นั่ง ☆ ☆ ☆




• Meditation - Legs are crossed

Ordinary posture :: This involves sitting with the knees apart and the legs crossed, the calf of each leg being on top of the opposite foot. This casual opposition may be assumed by men during a meal taken on the floor.

Even crossing posture :: In this posture, the right leg is placed over the left one. The right hand is on top of the left on one's lap, with the palms turned up and the thumbs joined together. The back must be straight. This sitting position is suitable for meditation, as it does not cause muscle pain even if one has beenn sitting in this way for quite a long time.

Complex crossing posture :: The legs are crossed, with the sole of each foot turned up and resting on the opposite thigh. To be able to assume this posture, one needs first to be able to practise the posture described above.

• Sitting in a crouching position

This is a sitting posture in which the legs are tucked back and in and one elbow is placed on the floor for support. (If one is sitting to the left, the left elbow and left hand should naturally be placed on the floor and the left hand clasped with the right one.) Although one is not required to lower one's head as well, it is considered polite to keep the eyes down. Sitting in this fashion is appropriate for both men and women when having an audience with or waiting to greet the King and the Queen.

• Sitting in a kneeling position


oben oben oben

This mainly consists of four attitudes :

Kneeling with the hips resting on the heels, the feet being in a vertical position. The back is straight and the hands are placed palms down on the thighs. (This is a male posture used during preparation for half-prostration in the Benchangapradit style with five parts of the body.) Women may assume this posture when making a traditional salutation towards men.

Kneeling with the hips resting on the heels, with the feet in a horizontal position. The back is straight and the hands are placed palms down on the thighs. (This is a female posture used in preparation for half-prostration in the Benchangapradit style.)

Kneeling with palms joined at chest level. This posture is the first step of the half-prostration in the Benchangapradit style. The palms and fingers of the joined hands must be close to one another. The joined palms are raised to the chest and, in the female attitude, positioned so that they point outwards at a 45-degree angle to theh body. The elbows are held close to the body. Men join their palms and raise them in the same way, the only difference being that their fingertips pointed straight upwards and not outwards. Both men and women may sit in this way in the first step of their traditional ceremonial salutation.

Kneeling in the boy-scout style (during a presentation of a royal commendation) To do this, one must first of all step forward with the left foot about half a step, and sit down on the right heel. The left knee remains bent and the left foot rests on the ground. The right hand is then placed on the right knee and the left arm on the left knee. The left arm should be positioned sideways towards the right. One must bow the head slightly while singing the royal commendation. (If one is also holding the hat, then the rule of order laid down by the National Boy Scouts Bureau must be followed.)

• Sitting on a chair



On casual and informal occasions, one may sit at ease in a natural way, without rocking the chair.

Before an older person, one should sit in a humble way as regards manners and eye contact, although it is not necessary to bend one's head. One may sit in either of the following positions:
Sitting with the back straight not leaning against the back of the chair: the hands should be clasped together on one's lap. Men may sit with knees apart and heels close together. It is appropriate for women wearing skirts to gather them before sitting down, and put their knees and feet together neatly.
Or sitting with the back slightly bent forward: the elbows and lower arms are placed on the thighs and the hands are clasped together.

Sitting with the palms joined at chest level. The fingers are close together, pointing outwards at a 45-degree angle to the body, and the elbows held close to the body. Both men and women may sit with their hands raised and palms joined at chest level, and lean against the back of the chair when listening to a sermon or prayers during a religious ceremony.

On ceremonial and formal occasions one should sit up straight in a composed and respectful manner, with the back straight, and refrain from talking or making disturbing noises, or falling asleep.




oben

When walking - how to do it

☆ ☆ ☆ การ เดิน ☆ ☆ ☆





• Walking in the presence of royalty (King, Queen, ... Monk)

After the arrival of the King, the Queen or a high-ranking royal personage and the host or hostess of the official function has performed formalities such as showing respect, presenting a report or bringing some persons in audience, he or she may have to lead the royal personage to a particular place. This should be done as follows:

Walk in front on one side at a suitable distance fromt he royal personage. Normally, the person leading the way walks on the left of the royal personage. Care should be taken not to step on the carpet on which the royal personage is walking.

Walk in a humble way.

Upon reaching the destination, make a salutation to the royal personage once.

Before stepping back, make another salutation and repeat it before takinga seat.

If the person leading the way must also explain to the royal personage about the place or performance forthe occasion, this should be done as follows:

Walk in front to one side (normally on the left) at a distance which allows mutual verbal communication. The person guiding should be well informed and able to answer any relevant questions which might be asked.

Walk in a humble way and take care not to walk level with the royal personage.

Walking after a royal personage. Those walking after a royal personage should walk in a modest way, i.e. not laughing, talking or paying attention to other people. If the royal personage is walking on a carpet, they should try not to step on the carpet.

Walking near royalty. In most cases, it is not appropriate to walk past a royal personage, except when it is really necessary, in which event it should be done in a calm and polite manner.

Passing before or behind royalty. This must be done at a certain distance and only when it is really necessary. After the person wishing to walk pas thas risen from his or her seat, he or she must make a salutation once. When passing the royal personage, the person concerned must turn towards that personage and make another salutation. The salutation must be repeated before taking a seat.

Walking to carry out an assignment before royalty. It is necessary to make a salutation after rising from one's seat and again upon reaching the point where one is to carry out the assignment. When the assignment has been completed, one must step back and make another salutation, then step back further to a certain distance and make another salutation before walking back to one's seat. The salutation is repeated before taking a seat.

Ascending and descending from crematorium at a funeral rite where royalty is present. Salutations must be made at the following stages:

- After rising from one's seat
- Passing the place where royalty is seated
- After descending from the crematorium
- Before taking one's seat again.

• Walking during religious ceremonies

Walking in a candle procession or moving to the right on Buddhist holy days and other occasions to pay homage to the Three Gems, objects and places of worship. Normally, walking on these occasions is done in three rounds, the object of worship being on the worshippers' right. The following manner of walking should be observed:

- Walk with palms joined and raised at chest level. A set of flowers, a lighted candle and three incense-sticks may be carried between the joined palms. (may be omitted if not available.)
- Be careful not to touch others with the burning objects.
- While they are walking, Buddhists should concentrate their minds on the virtues of the Lord Buddha, His Teachings and the Buddhist cleergy. (Some may also meditate on the three characteristics of existence, namely persihableness, pain and that which has no self.)

• Walking at other ceremonies

Walking around the crematorium, following the casket containing the deceased who will be cremated. All those following the casket walk with composure to their left three itmes around the crematorium.

Ascending and descending from the crematorium. This should be done in line in an orderly way. The funeral souvenir should be accepted politely, always observing precedence.

Walking in processions at such ceremonies as the presentation of Kathin offerings and Buddhist Lent wax tapers to moks at the temples. Those in the procession should keep the line orderly and observe traffic rules.

• Walking past an older or more senior person

This should be done quietly at a suitable distance from the person.

When the older or more senior person is standing, men and women should walk with composure, hands at their sides, and bend forward slightly when approaching the person.

When the senior person is seated on a chair, it is appropriate for men and women to walk with composure, hands at their sides, and bend their bodies and their knees slightly when approaching the person. They may move on their knees if they are in a home.

When the senior person is seated on the floor, men and women should walk with composure and go down on their knees when approaching the person. When they have moved on their knees past the person, they may rise to their feet again.

To move on the knees, one must kneel down, placing the feet in a vertical position.
One then moves the knees forward one after the other as in walking on one's feet.
One should also bend forward a little when approaching and passing the person.



• Walking in front of or behind a more senior person

Walking in front : Walk at a suitable distance on one side, normally on the person's left. One should walk in a coposed and polite manner.

Walking behind : Walk at a suitable distance on the left of the person. One should walk in a composed and polite manner.



• Walking on ordinary occasions

Walking without ceremonial formalities, such as with friends and in public places, should be done in such a way that it does not disturb or irritate other people. Footpaths should be used when walking along the road or street. Traffic rules should always be observed and care taken when crossing the road.




oben

When salutating - how to do it

☆ ☆ ☆ การ แสดงความเคารพ ☆ ☆ ☆





There are various forms or gestures of salutation, such as joining the palms of the hands together, half-prostration, kneeling, bowing, etc. To choose the appropriate form, one must take into consideration the status or rank of the person to whom the salutation is addressed and the particular occasion on which it is to be performed. These forms of salutation may be classified as follows:

• Joined palms held at chest level

The joined palms are raised at chest level, the fingers being close together and pointing outwards at a 45-degree angle to the body. This attitude may be assumed by men and women while listening to a sermon and prayers or during a conversation with a revered monk.



• The raising of joined palms at three different levels

The level depends upon the rank or status of the person to be saluted.

Level 1 .:. The joined palms are raised to the forehead, the tips of both thumbs lightly touching between the eyebrows are those of the index fingers touching the upper part of the forehead. While doing this, men should bend low and women make a low curtsey. This gesture is used in paying homage to the Three Gems, Buddhist places and objects of worship when it is not possible for one to make a half-prostration with five parts or members of one's body. [left picture]

Level 2 .:. The joined palms are raised to the level of the nose, the tips of the thumbs touching the tip of the nose and those of the index fingers touching between the eyebrows. In doing this, men should bend down and women should curtsey, but not as low as in level [middle picture]

Level 3 .:. The joined palms are raised, the tips of the thumbs touching the chin and those of the index fingers touching the tip of the nose. This gesture is again accompained by a slight bending of the body for men and a curtsey for women. [right picture]



This is an act of respect towards one's parents, senior ralatives, teachers and revered persons.

This attitude is used in showing respect to one's acquaintances in general. If the person concerned is one's equal in age or rank, one may stand (upright) while making the wai gesture. The parties should perform it simultaneously.

If these gestures are to be performed as a group, all members of the group should be prepared to act in the same way.

• Half Prostration

This gesture of respect is mainly the lowering of one's forehead until it touches the floor or one's joined palms placed on the floor or somewhere else, such as the altar or one's own lap. It may be perforemd while one is sitting or crouching (sitting in a crouching position). There are two types of half-prostration, namely the Benchangapradit style and the one performed before a more senior person.

The Benchangapradit style. This is used in paying homage to the Three Gems, and is performed by touching the floor with five parts of one's body, i.e. the forehead, the hands and the knees. It consists of three steps, for which one may prepare oneself as follows:

Men do kneel down and sit on the heels, with the feet in a vertical position. Place the hands palms down on the thighs. Women do kneel down and sit on the heels, with the feet in a horizontal position. Place the hands palms down on the thighs.

Step 1 .:. Join the palms at chest level and position them at a 45-degree angle to the body.

Step 2 .:. Raise the joined palms and lower the forehead until the thumbs touch between the eyebrows and the tips of the index fingers touch the forehead

Step 3 .:. Put the joined palms and arms down on the floor. Place the hands, palms down, apart so that the forehead can touch the floor space between them.

While in this position, men should place each elbow sideways in front of each knee and not hunch the back. Women should place their elbows along-side the knees.

These three steps are repeated twice more (3 times in all). Then one may straighten up and rest the thumbs between the eyebows and the tips of the index finger on the forehead for a moment before putting the hands down. This style of halfprostration can be graceful if it is performed at a moderate speed.



Half-prostration towards a more senior or revered person :
To do this (man or woman) sit sideways, legs tucked back and in, and join the palms together. Then raise them to the nose, the fingertips touching the eyebrows, and put them down on the floor, the lower arms alongside one knee. Finally, lower the forehead until it touches the joined palms (or, to be exact, the joined thumbs). While doing this, the thumbs should remain in the horizontal position and not be raised to the forehead.




• Salutations towards Royalty

Old-style ceremonial salutation .:.

This is traditionally performed in front of the King during important royal ceremonies. To make this salutation, one (male or female) must prepare by kneeling down and resting one's hips on the heels, with the feet in a vertical position. The hands are placed palms down just above the knees. Men may sit with their knees apart, while women must keep their knees close together. The next three steps are as follows:

Step 1 .:. Join the palms of both hands and raise them to the chest, holding them straight upwards.

Step 2 .:. Raise them to the forehead, the tips of the thumbs lighly touching it. Look up and throw the head back slightly while doing this.

Step 3 .:. Lower the joined palms to the chest

Repeat the three steps twice more (9 steps in all) and then place the hands, palms down, just above the knees again.



Women rarely use this salutation except when they are required to perform it together with men in their own group. Where there are only women in the group, a similar traditional salutation with half-prostration in a crouching position is performed.

(This is performed when in audience with the King or high-ranking royalty. It consists of sitting sideways on the floor, legs tucked back and in, and lowering the upper part of the body, with the elbows resting alongside one of the knees and the hands clasped together. The palms are then joined and the forehead lowered to touch them. Having done this once, one may resume the side-ways crouching position before straightening up and remain sitting sideways as at the beginning.)

Western Style salutaion (towards the King and high-ranking royalty) .:.

Men bow their heads and bend the upper part of their bodies to a suitable extent.

Women stand erect and look towards the royal personage. Step back with the left foot and lower the knees. While doing this, place the right hand on top of the left above the knee. Bend the body slightly and keep the eyes down. Then stand up.





• Other Salutations

Bowing. To bow, one must first stand erect, with hands at the sides, and then bow the head slightly. Generally, bowing is a male salutation, although it may be used by both men and women when wearing uniforms and hatless.

Paying respect to the dead. This is to be done after one has worshipped a Buddha image at a funeral. If incense-sticks have been provided for the purpos, they may then be lighted and placed before the deceased.

Paying respect to a deceased Buddhist monk. If available, three incense-sticks are lighted by each person attending the funeral. Men then perform a half-prostration in the Benchangapradit style. Women do the same, except that they perform it in a crouching instead of a sitting position.

Paying respect to a deceased lay person. This is done as if the person were still living. If the deceased was more senior and incense-sticks have been provided, one should light a single one and pay one's respect with a half-prostration. If the deceased was about the same age as oneself, one should only join the palms and raise them to the chest. If the deceased was a young person, those attending the funeral may just stand or sit quietly for a moment as a sign of respect.

At a funeral which has received a royal honour, the person presiding over the funeral ceremony will light a set of one candle and three incense-sticks before a Buddha image at the altar and before the cabinet containing the Buddhist scriptures. This is to show that the deceased person followed the teachings of the Buddha. The person presiding then lights a candle and an incense-stick on a salver containing some flowers and lays them before the deceased before making a salutation.

The others attending the funeral worship the Buddha image at the altar before paying respect to the deceased with a bow or half-prostration.

Salutations to monuments representing important personages. These may be in the form of statues, photographs, paintings, drawings or other symbols. Various forms of salutation may be used for them - bowing, half-prostration and the wai.

On special and ceremonial occasions, such as the person's birthday and the commemorative day for the monument, the salutation is usually performed with the laying of floral pieces made inthe shape of a lotus. On the occasion of the anniversary of the death of the person, floral wreaths are used instead.

On normal occasions, the salutation may be made to these monuments with or without these objects.

Salutation by the person presiding over a ceremony. When the person presiding over the ceremony rises to worship the Three gems at the altar, all present must stand up. They join their palms at chest level when the person presiding begins lighting candles and incense-sticks. Having completed this, he or she will perform a half-prostration at the altar. The others present raise their joined palms to their foreheads in the wai position, bowing their heads slightly at the same time. If the national flag and the King's portrait are also present at teh altar, the person presiding, after paying homage to the Three Gems, retreats one step, stands erect and bows once . This form of salutation is always observed, regardless of the sex, dress or uniform concerned.

At the end of the ceremony, the person presiding should pay homage with a half-prostration at the altar once more. The others present stand still and then salute the Buddha image. However, if the person presiding does not leave immediately after the ceremony but stays on to talk to people, or have tea, he or she may depart later without repeating the salutation at the altar.

Salutations by persons in uniform. These are performed according to the code of conduct of their institution.

• Accepting Salutations

When a senior person is saluted by a junior person, the older person raises his or her hands, palms joined, to the chest as a sign of acceptance. If both parties are equal in age or rank, the joined palms are raised so that the tips of the index fingers just touch the chin.





oben

Presenting and Receiving of things

☆ ☆ ☆ การ รับ ของ และ ส่ง ของ ☆ ☆ ☆






• Presenting to and receiving from Royalty

The object to be presented to the King, the Queen or high-ranking royalty must be placed on a salver with a pedestal if it is small and light in weight. This is required no matter whether the royal personage concerned is sitting or standing. The presenter holds the salver with both hands and either bows or curtseys once before approaching. The salutation must be repeated once more at a certain distance from the royal personage. The presenter then steps forward with the right foot and kneels on the left knee to make the presentation. After the object presented has been removed from the salver, the presenter may rise to his or her feet, lowering the salver and withdrawing the right foot. A salutation is then made before the person moves backwards 3-4 paces. Another salutation is made before returning to one's seat.



Sometimes the salver is presented together with the object on it. In this case, the presenter may leave the hands at the sides in the normal position when rising after the presentation. Then he or she moves backwards and salutes the royal personage before stepping backwards a further 3-4 paces. The salutation is repeated before returning to seat.

When the royal personage is seated on the floor, the presenter must first make a salutation in the proper way and then approach by moving forward on the knees. At an appropriate distance from the royal personage, the presentation is made. Once the object has been removed from the salver, the presenter must put the salver on the floor and perform a half-prostration in a crouching position. If addressed by royalty, the presenter must listen and answer while remaining in the same position and keeping the palms joined all the time. When the audience is over, the presenter must make the salutation once again before moving backwards on the knees.

If the object to be presented to royalty is heavy, immovable or living, it is presented in the form of a written document. The presentation formalities are as described above.

To receive something from the hand of the King or high-rankign royalty, one must raise the right hand at a 45-degree angle once, keeping the elbow in position and not extneded, and turn up the palm to receive the object.

If the object is light in weight, one hand is used to receive it. If it is rather heavy, both hands may be used; one must first raise the right hand at a 45-degree angle once and then raise the left one.

Before receiving the object, one must make a salutation tot he royal personage at a certaindistance (a man must bow and a woman curtsey in the royal favourite style). Then one steps forward with the right foot and kneels on the left knee. The right hand is raised at a 45-degree angle to receive the object (figures 53A-53B). One may then rise, withdrawing the right foot, and make anotehr salutation before stepping backwards.





Note: If one is seated on a chair, one must salute once after rising from thechair and once more before sitting down again. However, the number of salutations to be performed sometimes depends on what is appropriate to the occasion or what has been agreed beforehand. Also, in receiving, one should take a quick look to see whether the royal personage is holding the object to be given or not, so that one can reach out one's hand at the right moment. Once received, the object, whether it is heavy or light, must be carried by the receiver until the departure of royalty.


• Presenting to and receiving from a Buddhist monk

If the object to be presented is small and not too heavy, it may be carried and presented to the monk with both hands at a distance not exceeding 50 centimetres. Large objects and immovable things are presented through a document or verbally instead.

To present something to a monk seated on the floor, one approaches on one's knees and makes the presentation at a distance not exceeding 50 centimetres. A man may hand the object to the monk (figure 56), but a women must place it on a piece of cloth laid before him. Then one makes a salutation to themonk with a wai or half-prostration, after which one moves backwards on one's knees. At a certain distance fromthe monk, one may rise and turn around. If the monk is seated on a chair or a monk's seat on a raised platform, one may walk towards him and, at the 50 centimetres distance, make the presentation as described above. If there are many objects to be presented, they must be given one at a time, except when they are in some kind of container.

Receiving. Before receiving something from a monk's hand, one must approach him and pay respect with a wai or half-prostration at an appropriate distance. If the object given is not heavy, a man may receive it with the right hand only. He may use both hands in receiving a heavier object. The same applies to a woman, except that a Buddhist monk will never hand anything to her but will always put it on a piece of cloth laid before him. (Women are not allowed to touch a monk !)



• Presenting to and receiving from an older person (Ceremonial)

If the object to be presented or received is light in weight, one sues the right hand only, leaving the left one at one's side. But a heavier object may presented or received with both hands. If possible, the object should be presented or received in a horizontal position. If it is a book, the presenter should offer it so that the spine of the book is on his or her left.


Presenting - to a more senior person who is standing .:.

Men - Walk with the object to be presented in your hand and, at approximately 2 feet from the person, stand erect and bow the head once. Step forward with the right foot and bend the back slightly while making the presentation. Then withdraw the right foot and bow again before stepping backwards and turning around at a suitable distance.

After the presentation, a man may salute the senior person with a wai instead of a bow.



Women - Walk with the object to be peesented in your hand and, at approximately 2 feet from the senior person, stand erect. Step forward with the right foot and lower the knees slightly while making the presentation. Then salute with a wai and withdraw the right foot before steping backwards and turning around at a suitable distance.

If the object to be presented is placed on a salver with a pedestal, the upper part of the pedestal should be held with both hands and presented with a slight bow. the empty salver is then held in theright hand and one either bows or curtseys before moving backwards.



Presenting to a more senior person who sits on a chair .:.

Men - Walk with the object to be rpesented in your hand and, at approximately 2 feet from the senior person, stand erect and bow once. Step forward with the right foot and kneel on the left knee to make the presentation. Rise from the kneeling position, withdrawing the right foot, and stand erect before bowing again. Step backwards and turn around. At the end of the presentation, a man may bend the upper part of his body forward and wai once instead of bowing.

Women - Walk with the object to be presented in your hand and, at approximately 2 feet from the senior person, stand erect. Step forward with the right foot and kneel on the left knee to make the presentation. Then salute with a wai, according to the receiver's seniority, before rising and walking backwards.

If the object to be presented is placed on a salver with a pedestal, hold the upper part of the pedestal with both hands and, at a suitable distance from the senior person, kneel down to approach on your knees. Then sit sideways, legs tucked back and in, and put down the salver. Make a half-prostration and make the presentation, after which put the salver down on your right and repeat the half-prostration. Pick up the salver and more backwards on your knees.


Presenting to a more senior person who is seated on the floor .:.

Men and women behave in the same way in making the presentation. If the senior person is highly respected, appraoch on your knees and, at a suitable distance, sit down sideways, legs tucked back and in, and put the object to be presented on your right. Make a half-prostration once before presenting the object to the senior person. If addressed by the senior person, remain seated, listening with composure. At the end of th address, make another half-prostration and move backwards on your knees before rising to your feet and turning around.



Receiving from a more senior person who is standing .:.

Men - Walk to a distance of about 2 feet from the person, stand erect and bow the head once. Step forward with the right foot and, bending the upper part of the body forward slightly,, receive the object. Then withdraw the right foot and bow the head once more before moving backwards and turning around at a suitable distance. Men may salute with a wai instead of a bow before receiving, and need not wai again.

Women - Walk to a distance of 2 feet from the person and stand erect. Step forward with the right foot and, lowering the knees, receive the object. Then withdraw the right foot before moving backwards and turning around.


Receiving from a more senior person who sits on a chair .:.

Men - Walk to a distance of 2 feet from the senior person, stand erect and bow the head once. Step forward with the right foot and kneel on the left knee to receive the object. Then rise to a standing position, withdrawing the right foot, and bow again. Then move backwards and turn around at a suitable distance. Before receiving, men may bend the upper part of the body forward and wai instead of bowing.

Women - Walk to a distance of about 2 feet from the senior person and stand erect. Step forward with the right foot, kneeling on the left knee, and salute with a wai according to the presenter's seniority. Receive the object and rise from the kneeling position, withdrawing the right foot. Then move backwards and turn around at a suitable distance.


Receiving from a more senior person who sits on the floor .:.

Men and women behave in the same way as in receiving. If the senior person is highly respected, approach on your knees and, at about 2 feet fromt the person, sit down sideways, legs tucked back and in. Make a half-prostration before receiving. Place the object received in front of you to your right. If addressed by the senior person, remain seated, listening with composure. At the end of the address, make another half-prostration, pick up the object and move backwards on your knees before rising to your feet and turning around.



• Presenting to and receiving from an older person (informal)

On informal occasions, when an older or more senior person is standing or sits on a chair or on the floor at home, one (man or woman) should act with humility and polieness when presenting to or receiving from him or her. If possible, one should pay respect with a wai gesture before receiving and after presenting. The leave-taking should always be accompanied by a wai.



Note: In presenting to and receiving from an older person whose seniority is not great and who is seated on the floor, one may pay respect with a wai while sitting sideways, legs neatly tucked back. In such cases, one approaches and moves backwards on one's knees.





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• Khunying Kullasap Gesmankij
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t1 = 3844 d

t2 = 679 ms

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