This first part deals with rectification / smoothing capacitors.
Linear Power Supply Building Block. Starting from the left, we have a fuse, a transformer, a bridge rectifier, smoothing capacitor,
and 'the load'.
It is very seductive to increase the capacity in order to have a low ripple, but doing so will increase the
inrush current (green). If it is too high, you may hear it (the 'ka-woom' when switching on) and you do stress
the components, so they will die earlier :-(
The situation gets even worse, when not switched on while the voltage crosses zero ...