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Arduino-Shield-TOBI.php    13539 Bytes    07-06-2024 10:13:42

Arduino Scalar Network Analyzer, 60 MHz, 80 dB

Shield "TOBI"

This is just a 'proof of principle' (for physicists) or a 'FUMU' (for engineers). We wanted to verify, if this hack-together of building blocks mayst work together.

Arduino Shield TOBI

The shield "TOBI", a hack together of this and that and an Arduino Uno. Just to test communication between an Arduino and a Python script. The largest effort was the Python script by R. Heslip. Thank you Sir, for sharing !

✈ Hardware / Software Description

The main task of the Arduino here is listening to the USB port. If some numerical data is received, this is understood as a frequency value. It then programs the dds. Anything else is regarded as a request to read the adc and send the value to the Python script running on the pc. The DDS is an AD9851 running at 150 MHz and the logarithmic detector is a AD8307. The hardware was kept easy, as the calibration (intercept-point, voltage per dB) shall be done in the software.

The Python / Arduino script / code was developed by R. Heslip based on works of Onno Hoekstra. Only small adjustements were made.

➤ Get the Sourcecode from Github
➤ See a demonstration on YouTube by R. Heslip
➤ Visit 'Open Emitter', the Blog of R. Heslip

✈ Arduino Sketch - The Code

Double click on code to select ...

// AD9851 DDS and AD8307 power meter
// sept 2013 RH
// small adjustments to match this project:
// 02.11.2015 Alexander Frank

unsigned long DDS_CLOCK = 150000000 ;     // PLUS MINUS SOME PPM
unsigned long FREQ = 10625048 ;
unsigned long FTW ;
unsigned long REF_MUL = 0x0000 ;
int DATA = A4;
int CLOCK = A2; 
int UPDATE = A3; 
int AD8307 = A1;
char inputcmd[100];  // serial data input
int cmdindex=0;

void dBm_power() 
  float dBm=0;
  int i;
  for (i=0;i<20;++i)  dBm+=(float)analogRead(AD8307); // average
  dBm = dBm - 869;
  dBm = ( dBm * 0.1014342 ) - 6.6 ;    
  Serial.print(" "); // may help Python parser
  Serial.println(" "); // may help Python parser

void raw_power() 
  Serial.print(" "); // may help Python parser
  Serial.println(" "); // may help Python parser

void SetFrequency(unsigned long frequenz)
FTW = (frequenz * pow(2, 24)) / ( DDS_CLOCK/256 ) ;

unsigned long pointer = 0b00000000000000000000000000000001 ;
for (int i=0; i<32; i++)
    if ((FTW & pointer)>0) { digitalWrite(DATA, HIGH); }
      else { digitalWrite(DATA, LOW); }
    digitalWrite(CLOCK, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(CLOCK, LOW);
    pointer = pointer << 1 ;
pointer = 0b00000000000000000000000000000001 ;
for (int i=0; i<8; i++)
    if ((REF_MUL & pointer)>0) { digitalWrite(DATA, HIGH); }
      else { digitalWrite(DATA, LOW); }
    digitalWrite(CLOCK, HIGH);
    digitalWrite(CLOCK, LOW);
    pointer = pointer << 1 ;
digitalWrite(UPDATE, HIGH);
digitalWrite(UPDATE, LOW);

void setup()
 // init dds 
  pinMode (DATA,  OUTPUT); 
  pinMode (CLOCK, OUTPUT); 
  pinMode (UPDATE,  OUTPUT); 

  SetFrequency(1000000); // 1 MHz default


void loop()   // Arduino superloop - where everything gets done
  char ch;

  long int temp;
// serial command interpreter 
// enter a number to set the frequency, anything else shows power
  while (Serial.available()) {
    if (((ch >= '0') && (ch <= '9')) || ((ch >= 'A') && 
    		(ch <= 'Z'))) inputcmd[cmdindex++]=ch; 
    if (ch == '\n') {    // parse command if its a newline
      inputcmd[cmdindex]=0; // terminate the string
      if ((temp=atol(inputcmd)) > 0) SetFrequency(temp);
      else dBm_power();  
      //else raw_power();  // python has trouble with floats
      cmdindex=0; // reset command line      

✈ Calibration

The AD8307 measures dBm, but the display of a scalar network analyser displays dB. You can therefore program the dds to output a center frequency and read the adc. Connecting some (known) attenuators allows to create a graph of adc-value vs. attenuation and so get the offset and pitch. We did that with excel, as it allows to display a trendline and displays the formula.

✈ Python

Python(x,y) is a free scientific and engineering development software for numerical computations, data analysis and data visualization based on Python programming language, Qt graphical user interfaces and Spyder interactive scientific development environment. We recommend you use pythonxy as it includes the GUI editor Spyder. DOWNLOAD IT HERE
Don't forget to change the Serial port to match your settings. (line 27)

✈ Downloads

✈ Pressing the "ACTION" button ... TESTING THAT THING :-)

This very first test measures a ceramic filter for 10.7 MHz with l-c matching network. Even the calibration feature was not used, the result is overwhelming. And the beauty of the graph makes you freak out ...

10.7 Mhz Ceramic Filter, S21

The second candidate was a Crystal Bandpass Filter from here


The third candidate was a lowpass of MiniCircuits (BLP-10.7)

BLP-10.7, S21

The fourth measurement shows the finding of crystal replacement data (by measuring the series and the parallel resonant frequency). Go here, if this is interesting for you. With the possibility to store a trace, it is easy to find matching crystals.

Measure crystal data

DIY SNA measure xtal replacement data

✈ Hint

The lowpass, which was assembled here cuts off at about 50 MHz. This is due to the fact, that my treasure-box delivered only inductors for that frequency. The maximum reacheable frequency is 0.4 * 150 MHz = 60 MHz. If you want to go to the absolute maximum, use a crystal oscillator for 180 MHz and design a lowpass for 72 MHz. Anyway, a much bigger version is about to come to life, so we did not optimize that.

✈ Share your thoughts

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t1 = 6577 d

t2 = 360 ms

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